Broadband angular color stability of dielectric thin film-coated pyramidal textured Si for photovoltaics

Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 129, Issue 17, May 2021. In this work we demonstrate the angular color stability of textured c-Si substrates colored by single layer thin film coatings of [math]. These coatings show higher angular color stability on substrates with a random upright pyramidal surface texture compared to identical coatings on planar silicon substrates. Angle dependent reflectance measurements, supported by a modeling framework, display that the reflectance peaks originating from thin film interference of coated textured substrates only shift about 15 nm with an increasing angle of incidence from [math] to [math], while the reflectance peaks of planar substrates with identical coatings shift about 120 nm at these angles. More specifically, reflectance peaks of planar substrates shift to shorter wavelengths, leading to a blue shift of the color appearance. The stable peak position of the textured samples is explained by a 2D representation of their surface texture and the primarily double interference interaction on it. While it is well known that a wide range of colors can be realized exhibiting low optical losses with thin film coatings, angular color stability was often not taken into account. However, for building integrated photovoltaics applications, a high angular color stability is desired, underlining the importance of using these textures. In most installed c-Si photovoltaics, similar substrate surface textures and dielectric thin film layers are already used. Therefore, this work envisions a route to facilitate large scale production of colored solar cells on textured c-Si substrates, colored by thin film [math] layers, with minimized optical losses and improved angular color stability.