Modeling of combined effects of surface roughness and blowing for Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence models

Physics of Fluids, Volume 33, Issue 4, April 2021. A new modeling strategy adapted to Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence models is proposed to predict combined effects of roughness and blowing boundary conditions. First, an analysis of experimental data is presented, leading to a specific description of the velocity profile in the logarithmic region of transpired turbulent boundary layers over rough walls. This analysis points out the deficiencies of existing roughness corrections to predict the effect of blowing in the presence of surface roughness. Indeed, these corrections tend to underestimate skin friction coefficients and Stanton numbers with the addition of blowing. The failure of existing models derives from an inaccurate estimation of the velocity shift of the logarithmic law given by roughness corrections. Concretely, roughness corrections underestimate the apparent velocity shift of the logarithmic law with blowing. To recover the expected law of the wall, an additional contribution on the velocity shift, characterizing blowing/roughness interactions, is integrated to standard roughness corrections. To that end, a modification of the equivalent sand grain height, adapted to [math] based turbulence models, is proposed to take blowing effects into account. Furthermore, an extension of Aupoix's thermal correction [B. Aupoix, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 56, 160–171 (2015)] to blowing is presented to predict combined thermal effects of roughness and blowing. The assessment of the proposed corrections is performed using [math] shear stress transport model on a large set of experimental data and proves the relevance of the strategy for incompressible and compressible turbulent boundary layers.