Particle resonances in toroidal fusion devices

Physics of Plasmas, Volume 28, Issue 3, March 2021. Resonances of high energy particles in magnetic confinement devices due to electromagnetic instabilities can strongly modify the distribution, leading to a reduction in fusion power and even discharge termination and particle loss to the device walls through avalanche. The existence of a mode particle resonance depends on properties of the equilibrium, particle trajectories, and perturbation mode harmonic content. Resonance location is a function of particle energy and equilibrium field line helicity. Different methods for finding resonance location and energy dependence are developed. The properties of resonances are discussed using examples from magnetic fusion devices. We show that if mode resonances exist at low particle energy, they very likely also exist at high energy, thus modifying high energy beam particles and fusion products. It is possible for a resonance to appear due to mode induced orbit helicity modification when it is forbidden at low mode amplitude.